What's the problem I'm trying to solve?

A good usable interface and abstraction for binding/creating/using render targets over Modern Graphics APIs considering following limitation(s):

Vulkan and D3D12

Vulkan and D3D12 use different concepts and ideas to render to a resource.

In Vulkan Tiled-Base Rendering is a first-class citizen and that's why the concept of a RenderPass exists, In Vulkan we have multiple objects to handle rendering to a resource. (RenderPass, Framebuffer, ImageView, GraphicsPipeline).


Assuming we ignore subpasses in Vulkan:

  1. Create the RenderPass, describing 2 main things:

    • Attachments Formats (Color and Depth)
    • Load/Store Operations (LOAD/CLEAR/DONT_CARE)
  2. Create PSOs using this RenderPass

    • Note that the PSO can be used with another RenderPass it only has to be Compatible (see Render Pass Compatibility), and just like D3D12, only render target formats are needed to create a PSO.
  3. Create FrameBuffer which has actual references to ImageViews (Texture handle already available on the GPU)

  4. Then we will bind our RenderPass+FrameBuffer (vkCmdRenderPassBegin) and use our PSO to render stuff. (which was created with a compatible RenderPass)


In D3D12 It's much simpler :

  1. You create your RenderTarget resources
  2. You bind them at command recording time
  3. In PSO creation only formats to those are needed so PSOs can be created very sooner without dependency to actual render targets. (I hope I'm right having not actually written serious D3D12 yet)


#0 : Initial Idea (already implemented)

Let's first talk about what is already available in YRB to render to textures which is very similar to Vulkan (becuase it's the initial backend).

  1. RenderTarget is exposed as Textures/Images just like Vulkan.
  2. RenderPass is exposed but subpasses are ignored, So it will become only bunch of formats and their load/store operations
  3. Framebuffers are exposed very similar to Vulkan
  4. PSO creation needs a RenderPass

Pros: Simple vulkan and d3d12 implementation

Cons: Too many objects to handle to be able to render to something, also textures might not be a good handle for RenderTarget resource types

#1 : Let's use less objects to handle (failed attempt)

Merge Framebuffer and RenderPass -> Fail -> Reason: PSO would then need Actual GPU Allocations for RenderTargets to happen before creation. Tackle this again -> Try to create PSO with a temprory compatible renderpass (only format data is needed from user which is fine)

As you can see things will start to look dirty and handling small things such as Load/Store ops would not be in their correct position, also for each PSO creation a renderpass is created and destroyed which no matter the small time it takes It's a waste of resources and I don't like it :(

#2 : Let's first make the names and interface a bit better.

  1. For explicity and clarity of the Renderer, expose RenderTarget as a ResourceType instead of using Textures for RenderTargets,
  2. RenderPass is a bit misleading and this name has thousands of meaning in Rendering System Design. and since we don't handle subpasses the better name would be FramebufferBindings (Thanks to one of the replies to my comments, @MGDev91)

PSO then will need a FramebufferBindings object to be created (format data for D3D12 and RenderPass for Vulkan)


  1. Simple Interface
  2. Better namings than before
  3. Explicit RenderTarget type exposed which enables compile time and runtime validation for those types and good things will happen :) (but handled like a texture in the implementation)

Cons: Still many objects to handle to be able to render to something, and they are all needed.

#3 : Getting rid of Framebuffer

We would still have FramebufferBindings but Framebuffers are created and looked up internally from RenderTarget handles/ids to Framebuffer. Binding render targets would be like : Cmd_BindRenderTargets(CommandBuffer cmd, FramebufferBindings bindings, RenderTarget * rts, uint32_t count)

FramebufferBindings will have VkRenderPass for Vulkan and Load/Store Ops for D3D12 to call appropriate D3D12 functions like DiscardResource and ClearRenderTargetView .

This is only to avoid using Framebuffer object and moving it around by user.


  1. Less objects to handle, Simpler to use
  2. Still Simple D3D12 Implementation

Cons: Nothing noticable instead of some simple hashing/lookups (make sure it's thread-safe)

// Setup
YRB::FramebufferCreateInfo framebuffer_ci = {};
framebuffer_ci.frame_buffer_bindings = &my_fb_bindings;
framebuffer_ci.render_target[0] = swap_chain.images[i];
framebuffer_ci.render_target[1] = depth_stencil_textures[i];
YRB::Framebuffer_Create(&framebuffers[i], framebuffer_ci);
// Recording Command Buffer
Cmd_BeginUseFrameBuffer(cmd, my_fb_bindings, framebuffers[frame_id])
// Not Setup

// Recording Command Buffer
YRB::RenderTarget targets[2] = {swap_chain.images[i], depth_stencil_textures[i]};
YRB::Cmd_BindRenderTargets(cmd, fb_bindings, targets, 2)

#3.5 Getting Rid Of Framebuffers in a better way.

Thanks to Alex Tardif, He introduced me to VK_KHR_imageless_framebuffer and shared very valuable info in the thread.

Vulkan Spec Says it All:

This extension allows framebuffers to be created without the need for creating images first, allowing more flexibility in how they are used, and avoiding the need for many of the confusing compatibility rules.

Framebuffers are now created with a small amount of additional metadata about the image views that will be used in VkFramebufferAttachmentsCreateInfoKHR, and the actual image views are provided at render pass begin time via VkRenderPassAttachmentBeginInfoKHR.

Here is the GPU support for this feature : VK_KHR_imageless_framebuffer Support

This feature seems to be not well supported by many GPU Drivers, probably the ones with no Vulkan 1.2 support yet.

This feature is in core Vulkan 1.2 :)

Our current SDK version is 1.1.130 and If we know for sure we're going to move to Vulkan 1.2 I will add this feature.

Interface would not change from #3 but implementation is much simpler.

Pros: no internal lookups and runtime framebuffer management.

#4 : Let's use EVEN less objects to handle

To achieve re-use of these objects and simpler interface for the user. we will have no such concepts as RenderPass and Framebuffers.



For Vulkan's Implementation:


Going with the nice interface #4 ?

If I decide to go with #4 which has a really nice looking interface. The Renderer implementation for Vulkan will get much harder to manage especially with multi-thread command buffer recording and I think I'm not experienced/ready to implement this yet although it seems very appealing if done correctly, who cares if those lookups take some micro-seconds (hopefully :D).

Plus, if i implement this, going back becomes very hard, I need a middle ground implementation to stay happy for now and I need to know I can easily move to #4 solution which seems nice.

Since our Higher-Level Renderer uses FrameGraphs these are mostly the job of the FrameGraph to handle these objects related to using/allocating render targets and objects around it, maybe It would be a waste of time implementing what I don't really need right now.

Because of the reasons above and the "Cons" of #4 I will start with #3 or #3.5 Solutions knowing I can make the interface simpler later on.

This is post the following of this tweet, and thanks to all the people for replying and helping me gather my thoughts :)